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10/16/2012

噶瑪蘭語書寫系統簡介 (Introduction to the Writing System of the Kavalan Language)

噶瑪蘭語書寫系統簡介
Introduction to the Writing System of the Kavalan Language


噶瑪蘭語總共有21個字母,其中4個為母音字母,17個為子音字母。字母及其發音分別如下:

There are 21 letters in Kavalan, 4 of which are vowels while the remaining 17 are consonants. The letters and their corresponding pronunciations in International Phonetic Alphabet are as follows:

[母音] (Vowels)
噶瑪蘭語字母
(Kavalan  letters)
國際音標
(International Phonetic Alphabet)
a/a/
i/i/
u/u/
e/ə/


[子音] (Consonants)
噶瑪蘭語字母
(Kavalan  letters)
國際音標
(International Phonetic Alphabet)
b/β/
d/ɮ/
h/h/
k/k˭/
l/ɾ/
m/m/
n/n/
ng/ŋ/
p/p˭/
q/q˭/
R/ʁ/
s/s/
t/t˭/
w/w/
y/j/
z/z/
/ʔ/


[附註]
  • R是唯一必須大寫的字母,其發音與法語的r相同(例如:rester 「停留」)。由於噶瑪蘭語字母並沒有使用到小寫的r,本可只用r而不用R。然而,多數噶瑪蘭族人都會說阿美語,而阿美語裡使用小寫r表示顫音/r/,或許是為了要使噶瑪蘭人不致混亂,故特別使用大寫R來加以區別。
  • 最容易混淆的兩個音是d所代表的舌尖有聲邊擦音與l所代表的舌尖閃音。前者如同蒙古語долоо「七」當中的л,而後者如同美式英語latter當中的tt。
  • 噶瑪蘭語是少數區分長子音與短子音的台灣南島語。例如,sani「水獺」與sanni「癢」,以及sukaw「糟糕」與sukkaw「非常糟糕」。


[Notes]
  • "R" is the only letter that always has to be capitalized. The sound it stands for is very close to the French “r” as in rester ‘to stay’. Since the lower case “r” is not used in the Kavalan alphabet, it could have been used to serve the function of the capital “R”. However, most Kavalan people also speak the Amis language, where the lower case “r” is used to stand for the trill /r/. So, probably in order not to confuse Kavalan people, the capital “R” is stipulated to represent /ʁ/ and the lower case “r” is reserved for the trill.
  • The most confusing sound pair is probably the voiced alveolar lateral fricative represented by “d” and the alveolar flap represented by “l”. The former sound is close to the Mongolian л as in долоо ‘seven’ while the latter is very similar to the sound for “tt” in “latter” as it is pronounced in American English.
  • Kavalan is one of the few Formosan languages that phonemically distinguish short consonants from long ones. Compare, for instance, sani ‘otter’ with sanni ‘itchy’ and sukaw ‘bad’ with sukkaw ‘very bad’.   

參考資料:
民國94年由行政院原住民委員會公告之《原住民族語言書寫系統》


李壬癸,2006,噶瑪蘭語的幾個音韻議題,發表於第16屆東南亞語言學學會之年度研討會。2006年9月20-21日於印尼雅加達阿瑪加雅大學。

References: Writing Systems of the Indigenous Peoples announced by Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan in 2005

Li,Paul Jen-kuei. 2006. Some Problems in the Kavalan Phonology. Presented at the 16th Annual Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, 20-21 September, 2006 Atma Jaya University, Jakarta, Indonesia






一起來聽聽看噶瑪蘭語的美妙聲音吧!
(Let's get the feel of how Kavalan sounds!)



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